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Does Sugar cause Diabetes?

Does Sugar cause Diabetes

Does sugar cause diabetes and sexual dysfunction Brisbane


Senior Lecturer in Human Exercise Nutrition, Leeds Beckett University

Disclosure Statement – Matthew Campbell receives funding from industry, charity, and research councils which support research in nutrition and diabetes. There are no conflicts of interest.

Does Sugar cause Diabetes

There is a widespread belief that sugar is the sole cause of diabetes. After all, the disease is characterised by high levels of sugar in the blood.

Diabetes was first identified through the sweet smell of urine, and it later became apparent that sweet, sugary urine signified a high level of blood sugar. Over time, diabetes treatment has swung from eating primarily sugar (to replace what is lost), to avoiding sweetness (to limit high sugar levels).

Today, the debate on amounts and thresholds of sugar and its role in diabetes seems as fierce as ever.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, where genetics and environmental factors interact. Some research suggests that sugar intake may play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes, but the research isn’t conclusive.

For type 2 diabetes, a diet high in sugar could, in principle, influence or accelerate the progression of the disease depending on the pattern of consumption. But to suggest that dietary sugar might cause or contribute to type 2 diabetes needs strong scientific evidence that demonstrates that either sugar increases body weight and body fatness (necessary for type 2 diabetes), or that sugar has some kind of unique effect that leads to 2 diabetes, irrespective of weight or body fatness.

Does Sugar cause Diabetes


What most people understand to be sugar is sucrose: a mix of glucose and fructose. A common misunderstanding is that blood glucose is derived solely from dietary sugar. Almost all of the sugar in the body, including the blood, is in the form of glucose – one of many sugars belonging to the family of carbohydrates.

Sugars typically form a small part of the diet, not all of them are equally effective at increasing blood glucose levels, and other carbohydrates, as well as fats and protein, influence glucose levels, too.

Animal studies show that high sugar diets lead to rapid weight gain and impair the body’s ability to effectively regulate blood glucose. But these effects are mainly due to the fructose component of sucrose and not glucose.

Does Sugar cause Diabetes

In people, diets high in sugar have also been shown to increase weight as well as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. But these effects only seem to occur when calories are not being controlled; simply exchanging extra sugar with calories from another source won’t prevent these negative effects. Also, observational studies have failed to show a harmful association between dietary sugar and type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes has arisen through rising body weights. Fatter people eat more of many things – not only sugar – and extra calories from any nutrient will lead to weight gain. Most sugary processed foods, such cakes and chocolate, contain large amounts of fat which contribute heavily to the calorie content.

Does Sugar Cause Diabetes

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Does Sugar cause Diabetes


Recently, the debate has turned to sugar-sweetened drinks, such as fizzy drinks. Sugars in drinks are less satiating than sugars in solid foods, and this may drive our appetite to eat moreSugary drinks have been linked to type 2 diabetes, independent of body fatness. But so have artificially sweetened low calorie drinks. Fruit juices, though, have not been linked to type 2 diabetes despite having similar sugar contents to fizzy drinks.

There is nothing special about sugar that sets it apart from other foods, and sugar does not cause type 2 diabetes on its own.

Generally, people eating lots of sugar tend to have poorer diets and unhealthier lifestyles. These, as well as other factors including urban growth patterns, the built environment, the food environment, stressful jobspoor sleep and food pricing probably contribute more to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes than dietary sugar.


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Phone: 0404 449 433

Does Sugar Cause Diabetes

Does Sugar cause Diabetes

Perineal Massage – Everything you wanted to know about it

Perineal Massage

Perineal Massage and Pregnancy to avoid vaginal and perineal tearing



Perineal Massage

Perineal massage is a method of preparing the outlet of the birth passage, particularly the perineum, for the stretching and pressure sensations during the birth of your baby. It has been used in different countries and cultures throughout much of human history.

The aim is to avoid trauma to that area; either tears or an episiotomy (a cut made in the perineum to enlarge the outlet). A large study has shown that women experiencing their first vaginal birth, who practice perineal massage from 35 weeks of pregnancy, have a lower risk of serious tearing (requiring stitches) or episiotomy.

Perineal massage will make you more aware of this area and will assist you to relax and open up for your baby’s birth. Women who have consistently performed perineal massage do not report the extremes of stinging and burning that often accompany the birth of baby’s head. Furthermore, perineal massage also decreases the chance of ongoing perineal pain at three months post-delivery.

Perineum Massage – Head Crowing


It is recommended that antenatal perineal massage be commenced from 35 weeks of pregnancy The benefit is seen when practiced just once or twice per week. Performing perineal massage more frequently than this recommendation may decrease the protective effect.1, 2

You may experience a strong stretching, or burning sensation when you first start massaging, but this should decrease over time.


  • Empty your bladder
  • Wash your hands and find a relaxing place to perform the massage (bathroom, bedroom, or anywhere else you are comfortable)
  • A warm bath or warm compresses on the perineum for 10 minutes prior to the massage may help with relaxation
  • Sit/position yourself comfortably
  • Trim your finger nails or better still wear vinyl gloves
  • Use a mirror to become thoroughly familiar with the vaginal opening and the perineum

Perineal Massage

Perineum Massage


    • Put a water-soluble lubricant, or natural oil like olive oil, on your thumbs and the perineum
    • Place thumbs just inside the vagina to a depth of three to five centimetres
    • Gently press downward towards the rectum and to the sides of the vagina at the same time to stretch the opening, until a very slight burning, stinging, or tingling sensation is felt
    • Work the lubricant in slowly and gently, maintaining the pressure and pulling the perineum forward a little as you sweep your thumbs from side to side of the vagina in a “U” shaped motion for approximately two minutes
    • The massage can be done in one direction at a time i.e. from side to side, or the thumbs can be swept in opposite directions. Try different ways until you find which is more comfortable for you.
    • Focus on relaxed breathing whilst trying to consciously relax the pelvic floor muscles and allowing the tissues to stretch
    • Re-apply your lubricant as needed, for a total Perineal Massage time of at least 5 minutes.

If your partner is assisting you or performing the massage for you, they need to use clean hands and one or two index fingers inside the lower part of the vagina. It is important to tell your partner how much pressure to apply without causing pain.

Perineum Massage


Avoid pressure at the top of the vaginal opening. Massage gently as forceful massage could cause bruising or swelling. Cease massage with any pain or discomfort.



Do not perform perineal massage in the following situations:

  • prior to 34 weeks of pregnancy
  • if you have placenta praevia (a low–lying placenta) or any other condition where there is bleeding from the vagina during the second half of pregnancy
  • if you are suffering from vaginal herpes, thrush or any other vaginal infection, as massage could spread the infection and worsen the condition.


Pelvic floor exercises should be practiced daily throughout pregnancy. This practice will help you to be able to consciously relax the muscles of the pelvic floor, which is exactly what you will do to assist in the birth of your baby. Pelvic floor exercises after birth will help you to re-tone your stretched muscles and tissues.

This article was sourced from


Perineal Massage During Pregnancy Helps Prevent Tearing During Delivery


Perineal Massage for Pregnancy Instructions


  1. Beckmann MM, Stock O. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database Systematic Review (2013)
  2. Queensland Maternity and Neonatal Clinical Guideline: Perineal Care, Queensland Government (2012)
  3. Jones LE, Marsden N. The application of antenatal perineal massage: a review of literature to determine instruction, dosage and technique. Journal Assoc Charter Physiotherapy Women’s Health (2008); 102: 8-11.
  4. Mei-Dan E, Walfisch A, Raz I, Levy A, Hallak M. Perineal massage during pregnancy: a prospective controlled trial. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008 Jul; 10(7):499-502.
  5. Hallam T, The postnatal patient.
  6. Pamaiahgari P. Antenatal perineal massage. The Joanna Briggs Institute (ND)
  7. This article was sourced from This article was sourced from




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Perineal Massage for Pregnancy Instructions


PERINEAL MASSAGE INSTRUCTIONS Perineal massage is time well spent! Numerous clinical studies point to the benefits of perineal massage during the last several weeks of pregnancy for reducing perineal tearing during delivery and decreasing the incidence of pain during sex … Continue reading

Perineal Massage During Pregnancy Helps Prevent Tearing During Delivery


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Perineal Massage during Pregnancy Perineal Massage during Pregnancy helps prevent tearing during delivery Perineal massage during pregnancy involves the gentle, manual stretching of the tissues that shape the birth canal. The benefits of this ancient practice have been studied by … Continue reading